- 2014-04-03 02:43:18 UTC
- 2014-04-02 21:43:18 UTC-05:00 at epicenter
- 2014-04-02 21:43:18 UTC-05:00 system time
20.500°S 70.400°W depth=10.0km (6.2mi)
- 40km (25mi) SW of Iquique, Chile
- 177km (110mi) N of Tocopilla, Chile
- 224km (139mi) S of Arica, Chile
- 265km (165mi) NW of Calama, Chile
- 502km (312mi) SSW of La Paz, Bolivia
M6.2 – 88km N of Iquique, Chile 2014-04-01 23:58:00 UTC
- 2014-04-01 23:58:00 UTC
- 2014-04-01 20:58:00 UTC-03:00 at epicenter
- 2014-04-01 15:58:00 UTC-08:00 system time
19.425°S 70.264°W depth=18.1km (11.2mi)
- 2014-04-01 23:46:45 UTC
- 2014-04-01 18:46:45 UTC-05:00 at epicenter
- 2014-04-01 15:46:45 UTC-08:00 system time
19.630°S 70.863°W depth=10.0km (6.2mi)
- 99km (62mi) NW of Iquique, Chile
- 140km (87mi) SSW of Arica, Chile
- 191km (119mi) SSW of Tacna, Peru
- 225km (140mi) SSE of Ilo, Peru
- 449km (279mi) SW of La Paz, Bolivia
ALERT! Tsunami could impact West Coast of the US ….
ALASKA/ BRITISH COLUMBIA/ WASHINGTON/ OREGON AND CALIFORNIA…
WEAK53 PAAQ 020038
PUBLIC TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT NUMBER 2
NWS NATIONAL TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER PALMER AK
538 PM PDT TUE APR 1 2014
UPDATES IN THIS MESSAGE INCLUDE A REVISED MAGNITUDE.
UPDATES IN THIS MESSAGE INCLUDE NEW OBSERVATIONS.
…THIS IS A TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT FOR ALASKA/ BRITISH
COLUMBIA/ WASHINGTON/ OREGON AND CALIFORNIA…
* A TSUNAMI HAS BEEN GENERATED THAT COULD POTENTIALLY IMPACT
THE AREAS LISTED ABOVE.
* THE U.S. NATIONAL TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER IS ANALYZING
THE EVENT TO DETERMINE THE LEVEL OF DANGER.
* MORE INFORMATION WILL BE ISSUED AS IT BECOMES AVAILABLE.
* THIS EARTHQUAKE HAS GENERATED A LARGE
TSUNAMI IN THE SOURCE REGION.
PRELIMINARY EARTHQUAKE PARAMETERS – UPDATED
* MAGNITUDE 8.2
* ORIGIN TIME 1547 AKDT APR 01 2014
1647 PDT APR 01 2014
2347 UTC APR 01 2014
* COORDINATES 19.8 SOUTH 70.8 WEST
* DEPTH 6 MILES
* LOCATION NEAR COAST OF NORTHERN CHILE
OBSERVATIONS OF TSUNAMI ACTIVITY – UPDATED
TIME OBSERVED MAX
SITE OF MEASUREMENT TSUNAMI HEIGHT
—————————- ————— ————–
PISAGUA CHILE 2352 UTC 04-01 06.5FT
IQUIQUE CHILE 2357 UTC 04-01 05.8FT
DART32401ST CHILE 0011 UTC 04-02 00.8FT
PATACHE CHILE 0006 UTC 04-02 05.6FT
ARICA CHILE 0014 UTC 04-02 02.8FT
MATARANI PERU 0020 UTC 04-02 01.8FT
HEIGHT – OBSERVED MAX TSUNAMI HEIGHT IS THE WATER LEVEL ABOVE THE
TIDE LEVEL AT THE TIME OF MEASUREMENT.
NEXT UPDATE AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
* MESSAGES WILL BE ISSUED HOURLY TO KEEP YOU INFORMED OF THE
PROGRESS OF THIS EVENT.
* REFER TO THE INTERNET SITE NTWC.ARH.NOAA.GOV FOR
* PACIFIC COASTAL REGIONS OUTSIDE CALIFORNIA… OREGON…
WASHINGTON… BRITISH COLUMBIA AND ALASKA SHOULD REFER TO THE
PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER MESSAGES AT PTWC.WEATHER.GOV.
Hawaii could be elevated to tsunami watch status…
Message to Hawaii civil defense…
WEHW42 PHEB 020035
TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT NUMBER 3
NWS PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER EWA BEACH HI
235 PM HST TUE APR 01 2014
TO – CIVIL DEFENSE IN THE STATE OF HAWAII
SUBJECT – TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT
THIS STATEMENT IS FOR INFORMATION ONLY. NO ACTION IS REQUIRED AT
THIS TIME. HOWEVER… THE TSUNAMI THREAT TO HAWAII IS STILL
AN EARTHQUAKE HAS OCCURRED WITH THESE PRELIMINARY PARAMETERS
ORIGIN TIME – 0147 PM HST 01 APR 2014
COORDINATES – 19.8 SOUTH 70.8 WEST
LOCATION – OFF THE COAST OF NORTHERN CHILE
MAGNITUDE – 8.2 MOMENT
THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER HAS ISSUED AN EXPANDING
REGIONAL TSUNAMI WARNING AND WATCH FOR PARTS OF THE PACIFIC
LOCATED CLOSER TO THE EARTHQUAKE. AN EVALUATION OF THE PACIFIC
WIDE TSUNAMI THREAT IS UNDERWAY AND THERE IS A POSSIBILITY THAT
HAWAII COULD BE ELEVATED TO A WATCH OR WARNING STATUS.
IF TSUNAMI WAVES IMPACT HAWAII THEIR ESTIMATED EARLIEST ARRIVAL
0324 AM HST WED 02 APR 2014
FURTHER STATEMENTS WILL BE ISSUED HOURLY OR SOONER AS CONDITIONS
WARRANT UNTIL THE THREAT TO HAWAII HAS PASSED.
Seismotectonics of South America (Nazca Plate Region)
The South American arc extends over 7,000 km, from the Chilean margin triple junction offshore of southern Chile to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore of the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their descent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate, the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 mm/yr in the south to approximately 65 mm/yr in the north. Although the rate of subduction varies little along the entire arc, there are complex changes in the geologic processes along the subduction zone that dramatically influence volcanic activity, crustal deformation, earthquake generation and occurrence all along the western edge of South America.
Most of the large earthquakes in South America are constrained to shallow depths of 0 to 70 km resulting from both crustal and interplate deformation. Crustal earthquakes result from deformation and mountain building in the overriding South America plate and generate earthquakes as deep as approximately 50 km. Interplate earthquakes occur due to slip along the dipping interface between the Nazca and the South American plates. Interplate earthquakes in this region are frequent and often large, and occur between the depths of approximately 10 and 60 km. Since 1900, numerous magnitude 8 or larger earthquakes have occurred on this subduction zone interface that were followed by devastating tsunamis, including the 1960 M9.5 earthquake in southern Chile, the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in the world. Other notable shallow tsunami-generating earthquakes include the 1906 M8.5 earthquake near Esmeraldas, Ecuador, the 1922 M8.5 earthquake near Coquimbo, Chile, the 2001 M8.4 Arequipa, Peru earthquake, the 2007 M8.0 earthquake near Pisco, Peru, and the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake located just north of the 1960 event.
Large intermediate-depth earthquakes (those occurring between depths of approximately 70 and 300 km) are relatively limited in size and spatial extent in South America, and occur within the Nazca plate as a result of internal deformation within the subducting plate. These earthquakes generally cluster beneath northern Chile and southwestern Bolivia, and to a lesser extent beneath northern Peru and southern Ecuador, with depths between 110 and 130 km. Most of these earthquakes occur adjacent to the bend in the coastline between Peru and Chile. The most recent large intermediate-depth earthquake in this region was the 2005 M7.8 Tarapaca, Chile earthquake.
Earthquakes can also be generated to depths greater than 600 km as a result of continued internal deformation of the subducting Nazca plate. Deep-focus earthquakes in South America are not observed from a depth range of approximately 300 to 500 km. Instead, deep earthquakes in this region occur at depths of 500 to 650 km and are concentrated into two zones: one that runs beneath the Peru-Brazil border and another that extends from central Bolivia to central Argentina. These earthquakes generally do not exhibit large magnitudes. An exception to this was the 1994 Bolivian earthquake in northwestern Bolivia. This M8.2 earthquake occurred at a depth of 631 km, which was until recently the largest deep-focus earthquake instrumentally recorded (superseded in May 2013 by a M8.3 earthquake 610 km beneath the Sea of Okhotsk, Russia), and was felt widely throughout South and North America.
Subduction of the Nazca plate is geometrically complex and impacts the geology and seismicity of the western edge of South America. The intermediate-depth regions of the subducting Nazca plate can be segmented into five sections based on their angle of subduction beneath the South America plate. Three segments are characterized by steeply dipping subduction; the other two by near-horizontal subduction. The Nazca plate beneath northern Ecuador, southern Peru to northern Chile, and southern Chile descend into the mantle at angles of 25° to 30°. In contrast, the slab beneath southern Ecuador to central Peru, and under central Chile, is subducting at a shallow angle of approximately 10° or less. In these regions of “flat-slab” subduction, the Nazca plate moves horizontally for several hundred kilometers before continuing its descent into the mantle, and is shadowed by an extended zone of crustal seismicity in the overlying South America plate. Although the South America plate exhibits a chain of active volcanism resulting from the subduction and partial melting of the Nazca oceanic lithosphere along most of the arc, these regions of inferred shallow subduction correlate with an absence of volcanic activity.
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