CERN: Rattling The World With Volcanos Earthquakes , Not To Mention Microwave Induced Frequency

A new study provides “incontrovertible evidence” that the volcanic super-eruption of Toba on the island of Sumatra about 73,000 years ago deforested much of central India, some 3,000 miles from the epicenter, researchers report.
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CHECK THESE LINKS FOR ALL THE INFORMATION

http://www.tatoott1009.com/category/cerns/

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A very large 8.5 magnitude earthquake has struck Southeast of mainland Japan in the Bonin Island region. (downgraded to 7.8M)

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This earthquake occurred at a depth of 696km / 432 miles, which falls deep into the Asthenosphere below the Pacific plate.

Worthy to note that an earthquake forecast was issued for Japan YESTERDAY, giving full warning of a very large event coming this week.

Warning issued yesterday, 8.5M strikes today.

See the full forecast for Japan here:

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CERNS Quake Rattle Yellowstone ?

Yellowstone Seismogram Calendar for YHR, centered on 2015/05/20 – 5/20/2015 HERE IS THE LINK http://www.isthisthingon.org/Yellowstone/seismothumbs.php?station=YHR¢er=1432098000 Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 2015 Week #18 5/3/2015 5/4/2015 5/5/2015 5/6/2015 5/7/2015 5/8/2015 5/9/2015 2015 Week #19 5/10/2015 5/11/2015 5/12/2015 5/13/2015 5/14/2015 5/15/2015 5/16/2015 2015 Week #20 5/17/2015 5/18/2015 5/19/2015 5/20/2015 5/21/2015 5/22/2015 5/23/2015 2015 Week

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A magnitude 4.1 earthquake has struck Southern California at Salton Sea Volcanic buttes.

Reports are coming in from viewers that this event was felt fairly strong in San Diego, CA.

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Seeing a noteworthy earthquake strike near an active volcano in Southern California is a sign of the greater global seismic unrest currently underway.

It would be wise at this point (in light of the other recent Pacific earthquake activity) for the people of the West coast to at least be placed on a “watch” for possible larger movement.

Even if nothing actually ends up hitting, it is better to do what the Japanese are doing right now, which is warn the population of the possibility of a larger coming earthquake.

Certainly now we can all be on the same page that there IS a temporary increase in activity taking place in multiple locations globally, thus warnings should be issued for a general watch for normally earthquake prone areas, and give instructions to have a plan.

Keep in mind that this 4.1M earthquake struck at a location where “professionals” are concerned about a potential eruption — Salton Sea Volcano could erupt if earthquake / seismic conditions are right (their words not mine). The volcano was elevated to “active” status in 2011 based upon some kind of internal USGS technicality.

See the news report on Salton Sea eruption potential here :


A rare magnitude 3.2 earthquake has struck South Central Utah near the dormant Markagunt volcanic plateau.

The last eruption of this volcano was nearly 1,000 years ago. (1050AD – in the early middle ages / late dark age)

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May 31, 2015 – Magnitude 3.2 earthquake strikes the Markagunt volcanic plateau in South Utah. The plateau is made up of multiple lava flows which extend from a cluster of long dormant volcanic cinder cones. The obvious volcanoes stand out easily, the more weathered flows to the North (near the earthquake epicenter) are much more eroded, and hard to differentiate from the surrounding mountains.

 


This earthquake in Utah (at a dormant volcano) immediately followed a 4.1 magnitude earthquake which struck at Salton Sea Volcano in Southern California near San Diego, CA.

http://dutchsinse.com/5312015-southern-california-4-1m-earthquake-at-salton-sea-volcano-unrest-showing/

The Salton Sea volcanic buttes are “active” as opposed to the long dormant Markagunt volcanoes.

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For there to be two different earthquakes at two different volcanoes in the Southwest United states within about 2 hours time, this lets us know greater pressure is building on the West coast of the United States.

The greater craton pressure is putting stress on the magma chambers of a few (so far) Southwestern United States dormant volcanoes, also pressure showing up via a series of earthquakes at the fracking operation weak points in the midwest (Illinois + Kansas).

Keep watch for more activity, and at this point.. you better start looking up the coordinates of each earthquake above 3.0M on the West coast to see what resides at the location.

You can use the USGS coordinates from : http://earthquake.usgs.gov

Then use a full version of Google earth to look up the earthquake , download a copy of google earth here: http://earth.google.com


Information on this earthquake in Utah near the Markagunt volcanoes from the USGS:

Scientific – Origin

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/uu60112622#scientific_origin:uu_uu60112622

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A new study provides “incontrovertible evidence” that the volcanic super-eruption of Toba on the island of Sumatra about 73,000 years ago deforested much of central India, some 3,000 miles from the epicenter, researchers report.

The volcano ejected an estimated 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, leaving a crater (now the world’s largest volcanic lake) that is 100 kilometers long and 35 kilometers wide. Ash from the event has been found in India, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea.

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The bright ash reflected sunlight off the landscape, and volcanic sulfur aerosols impeded solar radiation for six years, initiating an “Instant Ice Age” that — according to evidence in ice cores taken in Greenland — lasted about 1,800 years.

During this instant ice age, temperatures dropped by as much as 16 degrees centigrade (28 degrees Fahrenheit), said University of Illinois anthropology professor Stanley Ambrose, a principal investigator on the new study with professor Martin A.J. Williams, of the University of Adelaide. Williams, who discovered a layer of Toba ash in central India in 1980, led the research.

The climactic effects of Toba have been a source of controversy for years, as is its impact on human populations.

In 1998, Ambrose proposed in the Journal of Human Evolution that the effects of the Toba eruption and the Ice Age that followed could explain the apparent bottleneck in human populations that geneticists believe occurred between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. The lack of genetic diversity among humans alive today suggests that during this time period humans came very close to becoming extinct.

To address the limited evidence of the terrestrial effects of Toba, Ambrose and his colleagues pursued two lines of research: They analyzed pollen from a marine core in the Bay of Bengal that included a layer of ash from the Toba eruption, and they looked at carbon isotope ratios in fossil soil carbonates taken from directly above and below the Toba ash in three locations in central India.

Carbon isotopes reflect the type of vegetation that existed at a given locale and time. Heavily forested regions leave carbon isotope fingerprints that are distinct from those of grasses or grassy woodlands.

Both lines of evidence revealed a distinct change in the type of vegetation in India immediately after the Toba eruption, the researchers report. The pollen analysis indicated a shift to a “more open vegetation cover and reduced representation of ferns, particularly in the first 5 to 7 centimeters above the Toba ash,” they wrote in the journal Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. The change in vegetation and the loss of ferns, which grow best in humid conditions, they wrote, “would suggest significantly drier conditions in this region for at least one thousand years after the Toba eruption.”

The dryness probably also indicates a drop in temperature, Ambrose said, “because when you turn down the temperature you also turn down the rainfall.”

The carbon isotope analysis showed that forests covered central India when the eruption occurred, but wooded to open grassland predominated for at least 1,000 years after the eruption.

“This is unambiguous evidence that Toba caused deforestation in the tropics for a long time,” Ambrose said. This disaster may have forced the ancestors of modern humans to adopt new cooperative strategies for survival that eventually permitted them to replace neandertals and other archaic human species, he said.

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Merdeka.com-Village Sitoluama, district Laguboti, Toba Samosir Regency, North Sumatra, restless with unusual occurrences. The soil on the side of the House residents put out hot steam like gas and pungent-smelling.

The alleged harmful vapors showed up on Wednesday (27/5), the right side of the home page of Purasa, about ten kilometers from the Capital town of Balige, Toba Samosir Regency.

“Hot steam like gas and pungent smells coming out of the pores of the soil it is feared to threaten the safety of local people, so we report it to the authorities,” said one resident, Purasa Silalahi on Sitoluama, Saturday (30/5).

Indeed, advanced Purasa, since three weeks the temperature around her very hot, good day or night. In fact, any House floor ceramic tile feels hot.

Feeling suspicious, the conditions he intends to dig into the ground next to his house as deep as 50 centimeters and turns to steam heat with a temperature of smoke had emerged from the pit quarry. Due to fear of minerals with the condition that he immediately covered pit again.

“Hot steam and smells made us feel afraid of the gas that can be burned, so these findings are reported directly to the head of a local village,” explains Purasa.

The village chief Sitoluama, Moppo Old Pangaribuan said, hot steam that is troubling the citizens it has reported to the environmental protection agency of Toba Samosir.

The use, on its territory there has been research on 20 years ago and there is a sign or a PIN that there is oil in the area.

“First there was the research in this area. But the results to date there has been no certainty and now all of a sudden appear in the form of gas. We hope relevant agencies can examine repeated for convenience of society, “said Mappo.

Meanwhile, the Head of the environmental agency of Toba Samosir, Parulian Siregar said, his side has continued to report the discovery of the citizens over the discovery of the hot steam that is troubling.

“We tried to coordinate with the Central Department of mines and energy of North Sumatra as well as the relevant parties to know for sure the source of steam, including handling solutions,” Parulian said.

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A supervolcanic eruption thought to have nearly driven humanity extinct may not have endangered the species after all, a new investigation suggests.

Supervolcanoes are capable of eruptions dwarfing anything ever seen in recorded history, expelling thousands of times more magma and ash than even a Mount St. Helens or Pinatubo. A supervolcanic eruption could wreak as much havoc as the impact of a mile-wide asteroid,by blotting out the sun with ash, reflecting its rays and cooling the Earth — a phenomenon called a “volcanic winter.” A dozen or so supervolcanoes exist today, some of them lying at the bottom of the sea.

The largest supervolcano eruption of the past 2.5 million years was a series of explosions of Mount Toba on the Indonesian island of Sumatra about 75,000 years ago. Researchers say Toba spewed out a staggering 700 cubic miles (2,800 cubic kilometers) of magma, equivalent in mass to more than 19 million Empire State Buildings. By comparison, the infamous blast from the volcanic Indonesian island of Krakatoa in 1883, one of the largest eruptions in recorded history, released about 3 cubic miles (12 cubic km) of magma.

About the same time the eruption took place, the number of modern humans apparently dropped cataclysmically, as shown by genetic research. People today evolved from the few thousand survivors of whatever befell humans in Africa at the time. The giant plume of ash from Toba stretched from the South China Sea to the Arabian Sea, and in the past investigators proposed the resulting volcanic winter might have caused this die-off. [Countdown: History’s Most Destructive Volcanoes]

However, recently scientists have suggested that Toba did not sway the course of human history as much as previously thought. For instance, prehistoric artifacts discovered in India and dating from after the eruption hinted that people coped fairly well with any effects of the eruption.

Now researchers have found that the evidence shows Toba didn’t actually cause a volcanic winter in East Africa where humans dwelled.

“We have been able to show that the largest volcanic eruption of the last two million years did not significantly alter the climate of East Africa,” said researcher Christine Lane, a geologist at the University of Oxford.

Ash in Africa

Lane and her colleagues examined ash from Toba recovered from mud extracted from two sites at the bottom of Lake Malawi, the second largest lake in the East African Rift Valley.

“We first started looking for the Toba ash a few years back, but it’s a bit like looking for a needle in a haystack, so it took a while,” Lane told OurAmazingPlanet. “Between myself and my co-author Ben Chorn, we systematically processed every centimeter of sediment between 24 to 46 meters [78 to 150 feet] depth in the central basin core. The layer is so small that if we leave any gaps in our search, we could miss it completely.”

Their analysis discovered that a thin layer of ash in this sediment about 90 feet (27 m) below the lake floor was from the last of the Toba eruptions, known as Youngest Toba Tuff.

“The Toba super-eruption dispersed huge volumes of ash across much of the Indian Ocean, Indian Peninsula and South China Sea,” Lane said. “We have discovered the layer of volcanic ash was carried about twice the distance as previously thought, over more than 7,000 kilometers [4,350 miles].”

The amount of ash found in the Malawi sediment core (a cylindrical log of sediment drilled from the ground), was more than the scientists expected to find.

“I was surprised to find so much ash in the Lake Malawi record,” Lane added. “The ash is very tiny, composed of shards of volcanic glass smaller than the diameter of a human hair. Nevertheless, in a lot of records I have worked on previously, even within just a few hundreds of miles of an eruption center, we sometimes only find less than 100 shards of glass within a gram of sediment. In Malawi, we have thousands of shards of glass per gram, which really shows how voluminous the Youngest Toba Tuff was.”

Quick recovery

If the area had seen dramatic cooling because of all the ash spewed into the atmosphere, living matter near the lake surface would likely have died off, significantly altering the composition of the lake’s mud. However, when the researchers investigated algae and other organic matter from the layer that contained the ash from Toba, they saw no evidence of a significant temperature drop in East Africa. Apparently, “the environment very quickly recovered from any atmospheric disturbance that may have occurred,” Lane said.

But these results, detailed online April 29 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, don’t mean that super-eruptions aren’t as big a risk to Earth’s denizens as previously suggested.

“It is important to realize that every volcanic eruption is different and the Youngest Toba Tuff provides only one example,” Lane said. “The impact of an eruption depends not just on the amount of ash erupted, but also the composition and volume of aerosols, how high in the atmosphere the ash is injected and the meteorological conditions at the time.”

As for what might explain the near-extinction humanity apparently once experienced, perhaps another kind of catastrophe, such as disease, hit the species. It may also be possible that such a disaster never happened in the first place — genetic research suggests modern humans descend from a single population of a few thousand survivors of a calamity, but another possible explanation is that modern humans descend from a few groups that left Africa at different times.

Future research will analyze what effects Toba may or may not have had on other lakes in East Africa.

“Whilst from this we can hypothesize that the global climatic impact was not as dramatic as some have suggested, we will need to find similarly high-resolution records of past climate from other regions that also contain Youngest Toba Tuff in order to definitively test this,” Lane said.

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What would happen if the supervolcano at Yellowstone National Park suddenly erupted?

It’s a terrifying thought, to say the least.

The eruptions of supervolcanoes are thousands of times larger and more powerful than normal volcanoes. Though there are very few known supervolcanoes on Earth — the one that exists under Yellowstone National Park is one of the most researched and well-documented.

This supervolcano erupted three times in the distant past, with the last known caldera-forming supereruption occurring about 640,000 years ago. Each eruption drastically altered the North American geological landscape and had far-reaching impacts felt across the world.

But according to Dr. Shannon Kobs Nawotniak, a volcanologist and assistant professor with the Department of Geosciences at Idaho State University, it’s difficult to know exactly what a supervolcano eruption would look like.

“Nobody has ever seen a supervolcano erupt, and there’s never been any human documentation of an event like this occurring,” she said. “The last eruption at Yellowstone occurred long before humans came to North America.”

Volcano

Continued from A1

The last time a supervolcano erupted anywhere on Earth was approximately 70,000 years ago in Lake Toba on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. This event is believed to have killed most of the humans beings living on the planet at the time. But historians and archeologists have never uncovered any human record of the eruption from that time period.

Without human documentation, geologists have had to use geological records and scientific research to piece together the events that occurred in Yellowstone 640,000 years ago.

Last month, the Associated Press reported scientists discovered a massive magma chamber underneath the supervolcano large enough to fill the Grand Canyon 11 times over. This new discovery was important because it gives researchers a better understanding of the park’s volcanic plumbing system.

With each new discovery, scientists get closer to fully understanding the mysteries of Yellowstone’s supervolcano and what to expect from a supereruption.

Unzipping

According to Jake Lowenstern, the scientist-in-charge of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, the buildup to any volcanic eruption could take weeks, months or even years. Some eruptions are quick, but some can take decades.

But the warning signs of an eruption of the Yellowstone Caldera would be apparent. Scientists at the observatory, which closely monitors the park’s volcanic system, would be the first to see the signs.

“We’d expect abundant large earthquakes, doming of the earth’s surface and rock-hurling explosions from the geothermal areas,” Lowenstern said in a written statement. “There would be way more activity than we currently observe.”

Dr. Mike McCurry, a volcanologist and professor at ISU’s Department of Geosciences, said Yellowstone would go through an “unzipping” process before a supereruption. Massive rifts would start to form in the park, and lava reservoirs would move to the surface, some potentially as large as 30 miles across.

Judging from evidence from the last supereruption, this violent movement in the Earth would be concluded by a massive eruption. The explosion would send molten rock and debris in every direction, killing and destroying everything within a 50-mile radius. The sound of the explosion would be among the loudest sounds ever heard.

From Southeast Idaho’s perspective, Nawotniak and McCurry said the eruption would look like a giant mushroom cloud filling the northern sky. Pocatello and the surrounding areas would likely be far enough away to survive the blast.

But for Southeast Idaho and the rest of the world, the worst would be yet to come.

Life and death

When the Yellowstone Caldera last erupted, it sent so much volcanic ash into the air it blanketed lands as far east as the Mississippi River.

Scientists saw the impact of volcanic ash firsthand in 1980 after the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Nawotniak said the ash from that volcanic eruption circled the globe twice in 14 days, and towns surrounding the volcano in Washington state were put at a standstill because of the ashfall.

But the volcanic ash produced from Mount St. Helens is just a fraction of what a supereruption would produce.

Nawotniak said the eruption in 1980 ejected about 0.07 cubic miles of ash. But the ash from the last supereruption in Yellowstone is estimated to have ejected over 240 cubic miles of ash.

If the Yellowstone Caldera suddenly blew, residents in Southeast Idaho would have a short time before the area became inundated with ash, so a quick escape to safer ground might be possible after the eruption.

“When the ash comes down, the problem is it doesn’t melt like snow,” Nawotniak said. “It would just sit there.”

Unlike the ash produced from small fires, the ash produced by a supervolcano would be filled with minuscule fragments of jagged rocks. This would clog up and severely damage all the machines in the area, grounding all airplanes and likely destroying automobile engines. With mechanical vehicles at a standstill, attempts at an escape or a rescue would likely fail.

Plus, the ashfall would make the air and water quality incredibly hazardous. Breathing would become very difficult for some residents, particularly those with asthma and respiratory ailments,

With aviation and rescue vehicles unable to get in or out of the area, the stranded Southeast Idaho residents who did not have access to clean water or prepackaged food would be facing a dire life and death situation.

Year without a summer

But Southeast Idaho would not be the only place dealing with the disastrous aftermath of a Yellowstone supereruption.

If the previous supereruption is any indication, much of the country’s grain belt in the American Midwest would be covered in ash as well. The ash would likely destroy most of the crops and livestock, which could lead to a famine and cause devastating economic consequences the world over.

But once the ash gets into the atmosphere and begins to circle the globe, it could hinder or completely block out sunlight for many years in areas across the world.

Historians have already seen a similar event occur within the past two centuries. In 1815, Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies erupted. At the time, it was the most powerful volcanic eruption seen on Earth in at least 1,300 years. The Northern Hemisphere witnessed a volcanic winter the following year, as ash deposits settled in the world’s atmosphere and hindered sunlight.

The effects of Mount Tambora’s eruption were felt in 1816 (nicknamed “The Year Without a Summer”). During that time, the average global temperature dropped between 0.7 and 1.3 degrees Fahrenheit, and farmers in North America and Europe dealt with massive crop failures, leading to widespread hunger and economic disaster.

In the aftermath of another Yellowstone supereruption, the world could have another so-called Year Without a Summer but on a more massive and destructive scale.

Pop culture

What are the odds of another supereruption occurring at Yellowstone in our lifetime? According to scientists, the odds are astronomically small.

“I’d be more concerned about getting killed crossing the street,” McCurry said.

But the small odds haven’t curbed the public’s fascination with the Yellowstone Caldera and supervolcanoes.

Every year, millions of visitors from around the world travel to northwest Wyoming to see the geysers, the lakes and all the other unique natural features that are byproducts of the cataclysmic eruption that occurred hundreds of thousands of years ago.

The supervolcano has even entered the realm of pop culture. The doomsday film “2012” depicted a Yellowstone Caldera eruption and its disastrous effects, while the National Geographic Channel and PBS have aired numerous documentaries on the subject during the past 10 years.

But there has also been a downside to the growing awareness of the park’s volcanic history. Every report of an earthquake or sudden geological change in the landscape in Yellowstone brings fears of an impending supereruption.

“Yes, the land changes at Yellowstone quite frequently, but that’s perfectly normal,” McCurry said.

In April 2014, the Associated Press said the National Park Service was fighting rumors of a possible supereruption after a video depicting bison allegedly running away from the supervolcano appeared on YouTube. However, a parks spokesman said the animals were actually running toward the park’s interior and the volcano.

But Nawotniak and McCurry said widespread fears of an impending supereruption could scare tourists away from Yellowstone National Park, thus causing an economic depression in the region.

There were fears that the Long Valley Caldera in eastern California was going to erupt after a strong earthquake swarm occurred in May 1980. However, the eruption never occurred, but the fears scared tourists away and caused a negative economic impact in area towns.

Nawotniak said she has had to reassure local residents at times that it is safe to visit Yellowstone.

“Luckily, the more dangerous the natural disaster, the less likely it’s going to happen,” she said.

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